Bouwen aan leren leren

Cognitieve leerbevordering bij kinderen met risico op ontwikkelings- of  leerstoornissen


© Nederlandse vertaling Acco, 2003.

Vertaling: Cathy Goossens

Exists also in EnglishRomanian – Hungarian  


Hoofdstuk 1         Cognitie en inclusie : samen leren denken  - Jo Lebeer

Hoofdstuk 2         De cognitieve bouwstenen van Feuerstein – Jo Lebeer

Hoofdstuk 3       Het Conceptonderwijs Model van Nyborg - Andreas Hansen, Morten Hem & Gunvor Sønnesyn

Hoofdstuk 4         Leren lezen om te leren praten en denken. De Portsmouth benadering van  cognitieve ontwikkeling en inclusie - Sue Buckley & Gillian Bird

Hoofdstuk 5         Cognitieve sleutels. Het activeren van de cognitieve functies  van kinderen die in een verarmde omgeving leven - Maria Roth & Istvan Szamoskozi

© Nederlandse vertaling Acco, 2003-04-14Vertaling: Cathy Goossens.





Hoofdstuk 1 Cognitie en inclusie : samen leren denken


Jo Lebeer


De uitdaging van het inclusief onderwijs - om op gewone scholen inclusief te werken met kinderen met speciale onderwijsbehoeften - is voor vele leerkrachten een bron van frustratie, omdat ze niet zeker weten of ze wel over de nodige kennis en vaardigheden beschikken om succes te oogsten. Daarbij komt nog dat ze in vele scholen te maken krijgen met een groeiend aantal gedesinteresseerde probleemjongeren, met lichte tot serieuze opvoedingsproblemen, die ‘risico’ leerlingen genoemd worden. In dit hoofdstuk argumenteren we waarom inclusief onderwijs beter is voor de cognitieve, schoolse en sociale ontwikkeling als een aantal voorwaarden vervuld zijn. Het is eerst en vooral nodig om gebruik te maken van meer gedifferentieerde curricula en flexibele evaluatiesystemen. Op de tweede plaats is het belangrijk dat het schoolsysteem en de leerstijl van de leerkracht meer proces- dan productgericht worden, met de nadruk op leren leren. Op de derde plaats wordt uiteengezet waarom het nodig is dat alle leerlingen beter leren denken. Indien inclusief onderwijs echt wil lukken, dan moet het samengaan met cognitief onderwijs, waarbij leerlingen leren informatie verzamelen, verwerken en genereren. Het uiteindelijke doel is dat ze meer zelfstandig gaan leren. Cognitief onderwijs is meer dan intellectuele kennis opstapelen, maar is ook relevant  voor het verwerven van sociale vaardigheden en creativiteit. Het INSIDE project wordt voorgesteld aan de hand van een vergelijking tussen zijn drie belangrijkste componenten: de theorie van de Tekstvak: Vele ongevallen gebeuren op basis van gebrekkig denken ( anticiperen en voorstellen) gemedieerde leerervaring van Feuerstein, het Portsmouthsysteem van vroege taal-en leesontwikkeling en het conceptonderwijs model van Nyborg. 



Booklet 2    The art of cognitive bricklaying
Feuerstein’s Structural Cognitive Modifiability &Mediated Learning Experience


Jo Lebeer


Reuven Feuerstein’s (International Centre for the Enhancement of Learning Potential, Jerusalem) theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability (SCM) postulates that the limits to learning are not known a priori. He stresses the social and cultural origin of cognitive development.

Differences in cognitive development cannot be explained exclusively by hereditary, congenital conditions or by environmental determinants such as socio-economic status of parents, cultural differences or familial background, but rather are the result of adequate Mediated Learning Experience (MLE). MLE is defined as the quality of the interaction in which human beings, such as parents, teachers, caregivers as well as peers, interpose themselves between a stimulus in the environment and an individual, in order to ensure that the stimulus is perceived, grasped and integrated in a meaningful way. It is through MLE that an individual builds up cognitive functions, prerequisites for independent learning afterwards. Feuerstein distinguishes 12 criteria of MLE.

From this theory, a practical cognitive intervention method (Instrumental Enrichment), dynamic assessment method (LPAD or Learning Propensity Assessment Device) and a set of didactic tools in order to create strong learning environments, have been elaborated.

Ovale toelichting: Next time check is there’s some water


The principal elements of his approach – mediated learning criteria, cognitive functions and an overview of the instruments – are introduced in this booklet.  Each of the criteria and cognitive functions is explained, illustrated with cartoons and with examples of classroom application. A copy page of 29 cognitive functions for working in class  is added. Includes a process-oriented lesson plan.

Mediation of regulation and control of behaviour (cartoon by  Peter Sackx)



Booklet 3    A Strategy of Concept Teaching and a Concept Teaching Model
Magne Nyborg’s educational approach


Andreas Hansen, Morten Hem & Gunvor Sønnesyn


Prof. Magne Nyborg (1929-1996), pedagogist and professor at Oslo University did extensive research on learning difficulties. He founded the Institutt for Anvendt Pedagogikk (Institute for Applied Pedagogy). The postulate is that basic concepts (e.g. size, shape, number, position, time, etc.) are prerequisites for effective learning in academic and whatever other social situations. Nyborg's Concept Teaching Model systematically teaches basic cognitive concepts and conceptual systems to children, from kindergarten onwards. This has enabled many children with light to severe retardation not only to improve their learning but also to be included in the mainstream. Later on his approach has been proven to be useful for “at risk” children and adolescents and even as a prevention tool.


In part I Andreas Hansen introduces the Concept Teaching Model, its theoretical foundations and practical implications.  Part II is an excerpt of the teachers’ guide “Grunnlaget” (meaning “foundations”) and illustrates CTM in practice with a few concepts: colour, size, shape, number. Examples of possible dialogues and model lessons are given. A list of objects with which concepts can be taught, is added.

Tekstvak: Example of concept teaching from the Anna Concept Lotto: every child has a card with an image. The teacher asks for example: who has a figure with colour red, the number of three and triangular shape?



Booklet 4    Teaching reading to teach talking and thinking
The Portsmouth approach to cognitive development and inclusion of children with serious developmental problems



Sue Buckley & Gillian Bird


Psychologists at the University of Portsmouth have been studying the development and education of children with significant learning difficulties since 1980, with a particular focus on children with Down syndrome, but the work is equally relevant to most other children with significant language and cognitive delay. There have been two main strands to our work, research into language, literacy and mental processes and research into inclusion in pre-school and school.

It is possible to improve the speech and language development of children with moderate and severe learning difficulties with appropriate therapy and advice to their parents from the first months of life. This therapy includes the use of augmentative communication (signing) from about 8 months of age and the introduction of reading activities to teach spoken language from as early as 2 years of age. In this way a majority of these children can continue to develop independent literacy skills in their school years. Reading activities improve speech and language development and working memory skills.

Inclusion into mainstream education results in very significant gains in speech and language and literacy skills for children with Down syndrome.

There are two main messages to be taken from our work:

1.Mental abilities are not determined at birth

2. For all children, mental and social development is influenced by the social world in which they are growing up

In this booklet, we will consider speech and language development and how to improve it, teaching reading to teach language and keys to successful inclusion in schools.


Booklet 5    Cognitive keys

Activating cognitive functions of children living in an impoverished environment


Maria Roth & Stefan Szamoskozi


Activating cognitive functions is important for the development of the whole human being, not only of his intelligence, but also of personality and motivation: the possibility to reach for goals, to be committed, courage, co-operation, curiosity, motivation and cognitive learning strategies all have to do with cognition. We start from the postulate of modifiability of cognitive functions in every human being. We go one step further than the classical nature-nurture discussion. This is important for supporting and developing so called “at-risk” and minority groups, who often are deprived of adequate education opportunities. We analyse examples of Roma children in Romania. We give a short overview of existing programmes known to activate cognitive functions. Then we will briefly present a cognitive development programme “Inclusive School Programme” and “Cognitive blocks”, which is largely based on Feuerstein’s theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Its results with a group of ADHD and non-ADHD children will be discussed. Both experimental groups showed a significant positive difference as compared to control groups.




Tekstvak: Roma children often end up in a vicious circle: they have difficulty to adapt to the school system, teachers are usually negatively prejudiced about their capabilities, they tend to have bad school results and drop out early from the system

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